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Nutrient Deficiencies

(N) Nitrogen:

Essential for the formation of enzymes, amino acids and chlorophyll Deficiency:   A Nitrogen deficiency (in forms of nitrate and Ammonium) will result in spindly plants with small yellowy leaves.  Some regions of the plant might turn purple. Toxicity:   An overabundance of Nitrogen will lead to dark green leaves, delayed fruit ripening and overly vigorous growth. Plants could in addition become more susceptible to pests and diseases.

(P) Phosphorus:

Product of ATP (energy), sugars and phosphate. Stimulates flowering, fruit yield and root development. Deficiency: A lack in Phosphorous causes plants to turn dark green.  Older leaves turn yellow and might adopt a violet tint since phosphorous is absorbed from them to feed new growth.  Leaves can curl backwards and droop, while fruit production and the root system is compromised. Toxicity:   An overdose of Phosphorous will repress the availability of zinc and copper.

(K) Potassium:

Protein synthesis requires rich potassium levels. Needed for plant robustness, and manufacturing of starch, sugar and root development Deficiency: A potassium deficiency causes Growth to decelerate. Plants becomes prone to fungus and aged leaves grow mottling Toxicity:   Excessive quantities of Potassium might result in a Magnesium deficiency.

(Ca) Calcium:

Needed for formation of the cell walls Deficiency:  A lack of Calcium causes crinkling and stunting leaves.  New shoots die out and blossoms fall down from the plant.  Tomatoes with a calcium deficiency will develop brown spots on the bottom of the tomato. This will cause decay called blossom end rot (BER). High temperatures encourage blossom end rot. Toxicity: An overabundance of calcium may lead to deficiencies in other nutrients, especially potassium and magnesium.  Excessive Calcium is unfortunately hard to diagnose.

(S) Sulfur:

Sulfur is needed for fruiting, seeding, protein synthesis and water intake. Sulfur can also serve as a natural fungicide. Deficiency:  A lack of Sulfur is rare. Shortages may drive young leaves to turn yellowish with red blemishes. Toxicity:   An Excessive amounts of sulfur causes smaller leaves and slows the growth of the plant.

(Fe) Iron:

Iron is essential for Chlorophyll formation. It also aids growing and respiration in the plant. Deficiency:  A lack of Iron is a common problem amongst growers. It drives new growth to turn pale and blossoms to fall of the plant.  Toxicity:   Excessive Iron can be hard to spot and are uncommon to have. Leaves may turn brown, this symptom is referred to as "bronzing"

(Mg) Magnesium:

Used in the production of chlorophyll and the manufacturing of enzymes. Deficiency:   A lack of Magnesium causes yellow regions to develop between leaf veins. Older leaves also tend to curl over. This happens because the plant is transporting the remaining magnesium to the younger leaves. Toxicity:  Excessive Magnesium symptoms are uncommon as plants store redundant ions. If drought follows these conditions, acidification develops in the plant which leads to oxidative damage.

(B) Boron:

Needed for the formation of cell walls in plants Deficiency: Boron deficiencies are rare and very uncommon. Symptoms may vary but most results in poor growth and brittle stems. Stems can also twist and split in some cases. Toxicity: As with a Boron deficiency, symptoms may vary in plants. Typically it will cause aged leafs tips to become yellow and die off. Reduced growth of shoots and roots is also to be expected in most cases.

(Mn) Manganese:

Manganese is needed in photosynthesis for the formation of oxygen and acts as a catalyst in plant growth.  Deficiency: A lack of Manganese induces yellowing of leaves around the lager veins while the smaller veins remain green. Plants could appear to be growing away from the problem, leaving young leaves to look seemingly unaffected Toxicity:  Excessive Manganese can give a crumpled appearance. Brown, black, red spots may appear on older leaves. In severe cases plants will wilt and die prematurely.

(Zn) Zinc:

Zinc is an all important component for energy production in plants. Deficiency:  A lack of Zinc leads to smaller leaves with crumpled edges. Toxicity: Excessive Zinc in plants causes leaves to become vertically orientated. In some cases it has been reported that leaves also develop brown spots. In severe cases of toxicity leaves may become necrotic and die off. Zinc toxicity can also cause roots to turn yellow and grow slower.

(Mo) Molybdenum:

Molybdenum is utilized in Nitrogen fixing and the Nitrogen Metabolism. Deficiency:  A lack of Molybdenum in plants results in stunting leaves. The Plant looses the capability to grow healthy darkish green leaves. As leaves get older, they might become more seriously affected, dying off along the edges of the leaves. Toxicity:   Molybdenum toxicity is extremely rare to experience in plants

(Cu) Copper:

Needed for the activation of enzymes. Copper is also essential for respiration and photosynthesis. Deficiency: A lack of Copper induces stunted leaves. Leaves can also become wilted, roll over or fall of the plant in some cases. Toxicity: In most cases excessive Copper will result in stunted root growth. It also tends to cause leaf chlorosis.
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